### JNTU Mtech Thermal Engineering Syllabus

COURSE STRUCTURE AND
DETAILED SYLLABUS

M. Tech. (Thermal Engineering)
w.e.f. 2010-11
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

M.Tech. (Thermal Engineering) –Full Time 2010
I SEMESTER

 S.No. Code Subject 1 TE101 Optimization Techniques & Applications 2 TE102 Advanced Thermodynamics 3 TE103 Advanced Heat & Mass Transfer 4 TE104 Advanced Fluid Mechanics 5 Elective – I 6 Elective – II 7 Thermal Engineering Lab

II SEMESTER

 S.No. Code Subject 1 TE201 Fuels, Combustion & Environment 2 TE202 Energy Management 3 TE203 Finite Element Analysis 4 TE204 Computational Fluid Dynamics 5 Elective – III 6 Elective – IV 7 Computational Methods Lab

III & IV SEMESTERS

 S.No. Subject 1 Seminar 2 Project

##### ELECTIVE – I
TE 105      TURBO-MACHINES
TE106       CRYOGENICS ENGINEERING
TE107       SOLAR ENERGY TECHNOLOGY

##### ELECTIVES II
TE109        NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY
SOURCES
TE110        MATERIAL SCIENCE
ELECTIVE III:
TE205     EQUIPMENT DESIGN FOR THERMAL
SYSTEMS
TE206     CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER
TE207      THERMAL & NUCLEAR POWER
PLANTS

ELECTIVE IV:
TE208      THERMAL MEASUREMENTS AND
PROCESS CONTROLS
TE209       REFRIGERATION & AIR-
CONDITIONING
TE210       JET PROPULSION & ROCKETRY

# OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS (TE101)

## UNIT I

SINGLE VARIABLE NON-LINEAR UNCONSTRAINED OPTIMIZATION:
One dimensional Optimization methods:- Uni-modal function, elimination methods, ,, Fibonacci method, golden section method, interpolation methods – quadratic & cubic interpolation methods.
Multi variable non-linear unconstrained opt imization: Direct search method – Univariant method - pattern search methods – Powell’s- Hook -Jeeves, Rosenbrock search methods- gradient methods, gradient of function, steepest decent method, Fletcher Reeves method, variable metric method.

## UNIT II

GEOMETRIC PROGRAMMING:
Polynomials – arithmetic - geometric inequality – unconstrained G.P- constrained G.P

## UNIT III

DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING:
Multistage decision process, principles of optimality, examples, conversion of final problem to an initial value problem, application of dynamic programming, production inventory, allocation, scheduling replacement.

UNIT IV
Linear programming – Formulation – Sensivity analysis. Change in the constraints, cost coefficients, coefficients of the constraints, addition and deletion of variable, constraints.
Simulation – Introduction – Types- steps – application – inventory – queuing – thermal system

## UNIT V

Integer Programming- Introduction – formulation – Gomory cutting plane algorithm – Zero or one algorithm, branch and bound method
STOCHASTIC PROGRAMMING:
Basic concepts of probability theory, random variables- distributions-mean, variance, correlation, co variance, joint probability distribution- stochastic linear, dynamic programming.

Text Books:
1. Optimization theory & Applications / S.S.Rao / New Age International.
2. Introductory to operation Research / Kasan & Kumar / Springar
3. Optimization Techniques theory and practice / M.C.Joshi, K.M.Moudgalya/ Narosa Publications

Reference Books:
1)    S.D.Sharma / Operations Research
2)    Operation Research / H.A.Taha /TMH
3)    Optimization in operations research / R.LRardin
4)    Optimization Techniques /Benugundu  & Chandraputla / Pearson Asia

Unit - 1:
Review of Thermo dynamic Laws and Corollaries – Transient Flow Analysis – Second law of thermodynamics – Entropy - Availability and unavailability – Irreversibility – Thermo dynamic Potentials – Maxwell Relations – Specific Heat Relations – Mayer’s relation - Evaluation of Thermodynamic properties of working substance

Unit - 2:
P.V.T. surface – Equations of state – Real Gas Behaviour – Vander Waal’s equation - Generalised compressibility Factor – Energy properties of Real Gases – Vapour pressure – Clausius – Clapeyron Equation – Throttling – Joule – Thompson coefficient.
Non-reactive Mixture of perfect Gases – Governing Laws – Evaluation of properties –  Pychrometric Mixture properties and psychrometric chart – Air conditioning processes – Cooling Towers – Real Gas Mixture.

Unit – 3 :
Combustion – Combustion Reactions – Enthalpy of Formation – Entropy of
Formation – Reference Levels for Tables – Energy of formation – Heat of Reaction – Aiabatic flame Temperature General product – Enthalpies – Equilibrium.
Chemical Equilibrium of Ideal Gases – Effects of Non-reacting Gases Equilibrium in Multiple Reactions. The vant Hoff’s Equation. The chemical potential and phase Equilibrium – The Gibbs phase Rule.

Unit - 4:
Power cycles, Review Binary vapour cycle, co-generation and
Combined cycles – Second law analysis of cycles – Refrigeration cycles.
Thermo Dynamics off irreversible processes – Introduction – phenomenological laws – Onsagar Reciprocity Relation – Applicability of the phenomenological Relations – Heat Flux and Entropy Production – Thermo dynamic phenomena – Thermo electric circuits.

Unit - 5:
Direct Energy Conversion Introduction – Fuel Cells - Thermo electric energy – Thermo-ionic power generation -Thermodynamic devices Magneto Hydrodynamic Generations – Photo voltaic cells.

REFERENCE BOOKS :
1)    Basic and Applied Thermodynamics, P.K. Nag, TMH
2)    Thermo dynamics / Holman, Mc Graw Hill
3)    Thermo dynamics / Doolittle – Messe
4)    Thermo dynamics / Sonnatag & Van Wylen
5)    Irreversible Thermo Dynamics / HR De Groff.
6)    Engg. Thermo dynamics /PL.Dhar

## ADVANCED HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER (TE103)

UNIT- 1:
Brief Introduction to different modes of heat transfer; Conduction: General heat conduction equation-Initial and Boundary conditions
Steady State Heat Transfer: Simplified heat transfer in 1D and 2D – Fins
Transient heat conduction; Lumped system analysis- Heisler charts-semi infinite solid-use of shape factors in conduction - 2D transient heat conduction – product solutions

UNIT - 2:
Finite Difference methods for Conduction: 1D & 2D steady state and simple transient heat conduction problems – implicit and explicit methods.
Forced Convection: Equations of Fluid Flow – Concepts of Continuity, momentum equations – Derivation of Energy equation - Methods to determine heat transfer coefficient: Analytical Methods - Dimensional Analysis and concept of exact solution. Approximate Method – Integral analysis

UNIT - 3:
External flows: Flow over a flat plate: Integral method for laminar heat transfer coefficient for different velocity and temperature profiles. Application of empirical relations to variation geometrics for Laminar and Turbulent flows.
Internal flows: Fully developed flow: Integral analysis for laminar heat transfer coefficient – Types of flow – Constant Wall Temperature and Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions - Hydrodynamic & thermal entry lengths; use of empirical correlations.

UNIT - 4:
Free convection: Approximate analysis on laminar free convective heat transfer – Boussinesque Approximation - Different geometries – combined free and forced convection
Boiling and condensation: Boiling curve – Correlations- Nusselt’s theory of film condensation on a vertical plate – Assumptions & correlations of film condensation for different geometrics.

UNIT - 5:
Radiation Heat Transfer: Radiant heat exchange in grey, non-grey bodies, with transmitting, reflecting and absorbing media, specular surfaces, gas radiation – radiation from flames.
Mass Transfer: Concepts of mass transfer – Diffusion & convective mass transfer Analogies – Significance of non-dimensional numbers.

TEXT BOOKS :
1.    Heat Transfer – Necati Ozisik (TMH)
2.    Heat and Mass Transfer – O P Single (Macmillan  India Ltd)
3.    Heat Transfer – P.S. Ghoshdastidar (Oxford Press)
4.    Engg. Heat & Mass Transfer- Sarit K. Das (Dhanpat Rai)

REFERENCE BOOKS :
1.            Fundamentals of Heat & Mass Transfer – Incroera Dewitt (Jhon Wiley)
2.            Heat Transfer : A basic approach – Yunus Cangel (MH)
3.            Heat & Mass Transfer – D.S. Kumar
4.            Heat Transfer – P.K. Nag(TMH)
5.            Principle of Heat Transfer – Frank Kreith & Mark.Bohn.
6.            Convective Heat and Mass Transfer / W.M.Kays & M.E.Crawford(TMH)
7.            Radiation Heat Transfer –G.M.Sparrow& R.D.Cess
8.            Thermal Radiation heat transfer – R.Siegel & J.R.Howell
9.            Radiation Heat Transfer – H.G.Hottel & A.F.Sarofim

UNIT I:
Non – viscous flow of incompressible Fluids:
Lagrangian and Eulerain Descriptions of fluid motion- Path lines, Stream lines, Streak lines, stream tubes – velocity of a fluid particle, types of flows, Equations of three dimensional continuity equation- Stream and Velocity potential functions.
Basic Laws of fluid Flow:
Condition for irrotationality, circulation & vorticity Accelerations in Cartesystems normal and tangential accelerations, Euler’s, Bernouli equations in 3D– Continuity and Momentum Equations

UNIT 2:
Principles of Viscous Flow:
Derivation of  Navier-Stoke’s Equations for viscous compressible flow – Exact solutions to certain simple cases : Plain Poisoulle flow - Coutte flow with and without pressure gradient - Hagen Poisoulle flow - Blasius solution.

UNIT 3:
Boundary Layer Concepts
Prandtl’s contribution to real fluid flows – Prandtl’s boundary layer theory - Boundary layer thickness  for flow over a flat plate – Approximate solutions – Creeping motion (Stokes) – Oseen’s approximation - Von-Karman momentum integral equation for laminar boundary layer –– Expressions for local and mean drag coefficients for different velocity profiles.

UNIT 4:
UNIT I: Introduction to Turbulent Flow:
Fundamental concept of turbulence – Time Averaged Equations – Boundary Layer Equations - Prandtl Mixing Length Model - Universal Velocity Distribution Law: Van Driest Model –Approximate solutions for drag coefficients – More Refined Turbulence Models – k-epsilon model - boundary layer separation and form drag – Karman Vortex Trail, Boundary layer control, lift on circular cylinders
Internal Flow: Smooth and rough boundaries – Equations for Velocity Distribution and frictional Resistance in smooth rough Pipes – Roughness of Commercial Pipes – Moody’s diagram.

UNIT 5:
Compressible Fluid Flow – I:
Thermodynamic basics – Equations of continuity, Momentum and Energy - Acoustic Velocity Derivation of Equation for Mach Number – Flow Regimes – Mach Angle – Mach Cone – Stagnation State

Compressible Fluid Flow – II:
Area Variation, Property Relationships in terms of Mach number, Nozzles, Diffusers – Fanno and Releigh Lines, Property Relations – Isothermal Flow in Long Ducts – Normal Compressible Shock, Oblique Shock: Expansion and Compressible Shocks – Supersonic Wave Drag.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Schlichting H – Boundary Layer Theory (Springer Publications).
2. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer – Oosthigen, McGrawhill
3. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer – W.M. Kays, M.E. Crawford, McGrawhill

REFERENCE BOOKS:

1.      Yuman S.W – Foundations of Fluid Mechanics.
2.      An Introduction to Compressible Flow – Pai.
3.      Dynamics & Theory and Dynamics of Compressible  Fluid Flow – Shapiro.
4.      Fluid Mechanics and Machinery – D. Rama Durgaiah.(New Age Pub.)
5.      Fluid Dynamics – William F. Hughes & John A. Brighton (Tata McGraw-Hill Pub.)

THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

1)    Compressibility factor measurement of different real gases.

2)    Dryness fraction estimation of steam.

3)    Flame propagation analysis of gaseous fuels.

4)    Performance test and analysis of exhaust gases of an I.C. Engine.

5)    Heat Balance sheet, Volumetric Efficiency and air fuel ratio estimation of an I.C. Engine.

6)    COP estimation of vapour compression refrigeration test.

7)    Performance analysis of Air conditioning unit.

8)    Performance analysis of heat pipe.

9)    Solar Flat Plate Collector

10)  Evacuative tube concentrator

## TURBO MACHINES (TE105)

(ELECTIVE I)

Unit – 1:
Fundamentals of Turbo machines:            Classification, Applications Thermodynamic analysis; Isentropic flow, Energy transfer; Efficiencies; static and Stagnation conditions; continuity equation; Euler’s flow through variable cross sectional area; unsteady flow in turbo machines.

Unit –2:
Steam Nozzles: Convergent and Convergent – Divergent nozzles; Energy balance; effect of back – pressure on the analysis; Design of nozzles.
Steam Turbines :Impulse Turbines: Compounding; work done and velocity triangles; Efficiencies; Constant Reaction Blading; Design of blade passages, angles and height; Secondary flow; leakage losses; Thermodynamic analysis of steam turbines.

Unit – 3:
Gas Dynamics: Fundamentals thermodynamic concepts; Isentropic conditions; Mach number and Area – Velocity relation; Dynamic pressure; normal shock relations for perfect gas; supersonic flow, oblique shock waves ; normal shock recovery ; detached shocks ; Aerofoil theory.
Centrifugal Compressor: Types; Velocity triangles and efficiencies; Blade passage design; Diffuser and pressure recovery; slip factor; stanitz and stodolas formulae; Effect of inlet mach number; Prewirl; performance.

Unit – 4:
Axial Flow Compressors: Flow analysis, work and velocity triangles ; Efficiencies; Thermodynamic analysis; stage pressure rise ; Degree of reaction ; stage loading ; general design, effect of velocity incidence ; performance.

Unit – 5:
Axial Flow Gas Turbines: Work done; velocity triangles and efficiencies; thermodynamic flow analysis; degree of reaction; Zweifels relation; Design cascade analysis – Soderberg – Hawthrone – ainley-correlations; secondary flow; Free-vortex blades; Blade angles for variable degree of reaction; Actuator disc theory; stresses in blades; Blade assembling; materials and cooling of blades; performance; Matching of compressor and turbine; off-design performance.

REFERENCE BOOKS :
1)    Fundamentals of Turbo machines – Shephard
2)    Practise on Turbomachines – G. Gopalakrishnan & D. Prithviraj, SciTech Publishers, Chennai.
3)    Theory and practice of steam turbines – Kearton
4)    Gas Turbines – Theory and practice – Zucrow
5)    Elements of Gas Dynamics – Liepman and Roshkow
6)    Elements of Gas Dynamics – Yahya
7)    Turbines, Pumps, Compressors – Yahya
8)    Axial Flow Compressors – Horlock.
9)    Gas Turbines- Cohen, Roger & Sarvanamuttu

## CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING (TE106)

(ELECTIVE I)

UNIT - 1: Introduction to CRYOGENIC Systems – Mechanical Properties at low temperatures – Properties of cryogenic fluids.
Gas Liquefaction: Minimum work for liquefaction – Methods to produce low temperature – Liquefaction systems for gases other than Neon, Hydrogen and Helium

UNIT - 2:  Liquefaction systems for Neon, Hydrogen and Helium Components of Liquefaction systems – Heat Exchangers – Compressors and Expanders – expansion valve – Losses for real machines

UNIT - 3:  Gas separation and purification systems – Properties of mixtures – Principles of mixtures – Principles of gas separation – Air separation systems

UNIT - 4:  Cryogenic Refrigeration Systems – Working media – Solids, Liquids and gases
Cryogenic fluid storage & transfer – Cryogenic storage systems – Insulation – Fluid transfer mechanisms – Cryostat – Cryo Coolers

UNIT - 5:  Applications – Space technology – In-flight air seperation and collection of LOX – Gas Industry – Biology – Medicine - Electronics

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Cryogenic Systems – R.F. Barron, Oxford University Press

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1.   Cryogenic Research and Applications – Marshall Sitting, Von Nostrand Inc, New Jersey
1. Cryogenics Engineering Edit by B.A.Hands, Academic Press, 1986
2. Cryogenics Engineering – R. B. Scott, Von Nostrand Inc, New Jersey, 1959
3. Experimental Techniques in Low Temperature Physics – G.K. White, Oxford Press, 1968
4. Cryogenics process Engineering – K.D.Timmerhaus & TM Flynn, Plenum press, 1998
5. Cryogenic Heat Transfer - R.F. Baron.
6. Cryogenic Two Phase flow – N.N . Falina and J.G. Weisend –II
7. Cryogenic Regenerative Heat Exchangers – Robort Ackermann, Plenum Press, 1997
8. Cryogenic Engineering – Thomas M. Flynn
9. Safety in Handling of Cryogenic Fluids – Fredrick J. Edeskutty and Watter F. Stewart, Plenum Press, 1996
12. Hand Book of Cryogenic Engineering – J.G.Weisend –II, Taylor and Francis, 1998

## SOLAR ENERGY TECHNOLOGY (TE107)

(ELECTIVE I)

Unit - 1:
Introduction – Solar energy option, specialty and potential – Sun – Earth – Solar radiation, beam and diffuse – measurement – estimation of average solar radiation on horizontal and tilted surfaces – problems – applications.
Capturing solar radiation – physical principles of collection – types – liquid flat plate collectors – construction details – performance analysis – concentrating collection – flat plate collectors with plane reflectors – cylindrical parabolic collectors – Orientation and tracking – Performance Analysis.

Unit - 2:
Design of solar water heating system and layout
Power generation – solar central receiver system – Heliostats and Receiver – Heat transport system – solar distributed receiver system – Power cycles, working fluids and prime movers.

Unit - 3:
Thermal energy storage – Introduction – Need for – Methods of sensible heat storage using solids and liquids – Packed bed storage – Latent heat storage – working principle – construction – application and limitations.
Other solar devices – stills, air heaters, dryers, Solar Ponds & Solar Refrigeration.

Unit - 4:
Direct energy conversion – solid-state principles – semiconductors – solar cells – performance – modular construction – applications.

Unit - 5:
Economics – Principles of Economic Analysis – Discounted cash flow – Solar system – life cycle costs – cost benefit analysis and optimization – cost based analysis of water heating and photo voltaic applications.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Principles of solar engineering – Kreith and Kerider
2. Solar energy thermal processes – Duffie and Beckman
3. Solar energy – Sukhatme

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Solar energy – Garg
2. Solar energy – Magal
3. Soloar energy – Tiwari and Suneja
4. Power plant technology – El Wakil

(ELECTIVE II)

UNIT - 1: Introduction – Historical Review – Engine Types – Design and operating Parameters.
Cycle Analysis: Thermo-chemistry of Fuel – Air mixtures, properties – Ideal Models of Engine cycles – Real Engine cycles - differences and Factors responsible for – Computer Modeling.

UNIT - 2: Gas Exchange Processes: Volumetric Efficiency – Flow through ports – Supercharging and Turbo charging.
Charge Motion: Mean velocity and Turbulent characteristics – Swirl, Squish – Pre-chamber Engine flows.

UNIT - 3: Engine Combustion in S.I engines: Combustion and Speed – Cyclic Variations – Ignition – Abnormal combustion Fuel factors, MPFI, SI engine testing.
Combustion in CI engines: Essential Features – Types off Cycle. Pr. Data – Fuel
Spray Behavior – Ignition Delay – Mixing Formation and control, Common rail fuel injection system

UNIT - 4: Pollutant Formation and Control: Nature and extent of problems – Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon monoxide, unburnt Hydrocarbon and particulate – Emissions – Measurement – Exhaust Gas Treatment, Catalytic converter, SCR, Particulate Traps, Lean, NOx, Catalysts.

UNIT - 5:
Fuel supply systems for S.I. and C.I engines to use gaseous fuels like LPG, CNG and Hydrogen.

Modern Trends in IC Engines
-          Lean Burning and Adiabatic concepts
-          Rotary Engines.
-          Modification in I.C engines to suit Bio - fuels.
-          HCCI and GDI concepts

REFERENCES BOOKS:
1. I.C. Engines Fundamentals/Heywood/Mc Graw Hill
2. The I.C. Engine in theory and Practice Vol.I / Teylor / IT Prof. And   Vol.II
3. I.C. Engines: Obert/Int – Text Book Co.
4. I.C. Engines: Maleev
5. Combustion Engine Processes: Lichty
6. I.C. Engines: Ferguson
7. Scavenging of Two – stroke Cycle Engines – Switzer.
8.    I.C.Engines by V.Ganesan

## (ELECTIVE  II)

Unit – 1:   Introduction – Energy Sinario - Survey of Energy Resources – Classification – Need for Non-Conventional Energy Resources.  Solar Energy: The Sun – Sun-Earth Relationship – Basic matter to waste heat energy circuit – Solar radiation – Attention – Radiation measuring instruments.
Solar Energy Applications:
Solar water Heating, space heating – active and passive heating – energy storage – selective surface – solar stills and ponds – solar refrigeration – photovoltaic generation .

Unit - 2: Geothermal Energy:
Structure of Earth – Geothermal Regions – Hot springs – Hot Rocks – Hot Aquifers – Analytical Methods to estimate Thermal Potential – Harnessing Techniques – Electricity Generating Systems.

Unit - 3:   Direct Energy Conversion:
Nuclear Fusion:
Fusion – Fusion Reaction- P-P Cycle carbon Cycle, Deuterium cycle – condition for controlled Fusion.
Fuel Cells and Photovoltaic –Thermionic and Thermoelectric Generation – MHD Generator.
Hydrogen gas a Fuel – Production methods – Properties – I.C. Engines Applications – Utilization Strategy – Performances.

Unit – 4:   Bio – Energy:
Biomass Energy Sources – Plant Productivity, Biomass Wastes – Aerobic and Anaerobic bio-conversion processes – Raw Materials and properties of Bio-gas-Bio-gas plant Technology and Status – The Energetics and Economics of Biomass Systems – Biomass gasification.

Unit – 5: Wind Energy:
Wind – Beaufort number – characteristics – wind energy conversion systems – types – Betz model – Interference Factor – Power Coefficient – Torque Coefficient and thrust coeff.- Lift machines and drag machines – matching – electricity generation.
Energy from Oceans:
Tidal Energy; Tides – Diurnal and Semi – Diurnal Nature – Power from Tides.
Wave Energy ; Waves – Theoretical Energy Available – Calculation of period and phase velocity of waves – wave power systems – submerged devices. Ocean Thermal Energy : principles – Heat Exchangers – Pumping requirements – Practical Considerations.

TEXT BOOKS:
1.    Renewable Energy Resources – Basic Principles and Applications – G.N.Tiwari and M.K.Ghosal, Narosa Pub

REERENCE BOOKS :
1. Renewable Energy Resources / John Twidell & Tony Weir
2. Biological Energy Resources / Malcolm Flescher & Chrris Lawis

## MATERIAL SCIENCE (TE110)

(ELECTIVE II)

UNIT 1:
Introduction–Materials used in Thermal Engineering applications
Stainless steels, Cast Iron,

UNIT 2:
Super Alloys and Titanium and its alloys
Graphite, Oxide Ceramides, Borides

UNIT 3:
Nitrides ,Silicides, Refractory Metals and alloys ( W, Ta, Cb, Rh & Mo)

UNIT 4:
Cermets
Composites, C-C Composites

UNIT 5:
Ablation & Ablative Materials.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. High temperature materials technology – Campbell E.E. and Sherwood – John Wiley and Sons, 1967
2. High temperature technology – Campbell I.E. – John Wiley
3. High temperature materials – Hehmann R.F. – Wiley and sons, 1967.
4. Behaviour of high temperature alloys – Proceeding of International conference, 1979.

# FUELS, COMBUSTION AND ENVIRONMENT (TE201)

Unit – 1:
Fuels – detailed classification – Conventional and Unconventional Solid, Liquid, gaseous fuels and nuclear fuels – Origin of Coal – Analysis of coal.
Coal – Carborisation, Gasification and liquification – Lignite: petroleum based fuels – problems associated with very low calorific value gases: Coal Gas – Blast Furnace Gas Alcohols and Biogas.

Unit – 2 :
Principles of combustion – Chemical composition – Flue gas anlaysis – dew point of products – Combustion stoichiometry.
Chemical kinetics – Rate of reaction – Reaction order – Molecularity – Zeroth, first, second and third order reactions - complex reactions – chain reactions. Theories of reaction Kinetics – General oxidation behavior of HC’s.

Unit – 3:
Thermodynamics of combustion – Enthalpy of formation – Heating value of fuel - Adiabatic flame Temperature – Equilibrium composition of gaseous mixtures.

Unit – 4 :
Laminar and turbulent flames propagation and structure – Flame stability – Burning velocity of fuels – Measurement of burning velocity – factors affecting the burning velocity.
Combustion of fuel, droplets and sprays – Combustion systems – Pulverised fuel furnaces – fixed, Entrained and Fluidised Bed Systems.

Unit – 5 :
Environmental considerations – Air pollution – Effects on Environment, Human Health etc. Principal pollutants – Legislative Measures – Methods of Emission control.

TEXT BOOKS :
1. Combustion Fundamentals by Roger A strehlow – Mc Graw Hill
2. Fuels and combustion by Sharma and Chander Mohan – Tata Mc Graw Hill
3. Combustion Engineering and Fuel Technology by Shaha A.K. Oxford and IBH.
4. Principles of Combustion by Kanneth K.Kuo, Wiley and Sons.
5. Combustion by Sarkar – Mc. Graw Hill.
6. An Introduction to Combustion – Stephen R. Turns, Mc. Graw Hill International Edition.
7. Combustion Engineering – Gary L. Berman & Kenneth W. Ragland, Mc. Graw Hill International Edition.
8. Combustion- I. Glassman

# ENERGY MANAGEMENT (TE202)

UNIT I:
Introduction: Principles of Energy Management – Managerial Organization – Functional Areas for
i. Manufacturing Industry        ii. Process Industry     iii. Commerce              iv. Government.
Role of Energy Manager in each of these organization.
Initiating, Organising and Managing Energy Management Programs

UNIT II:
Energy Audit:  Definition and Concepts, Types of Energy Audits – Basic Energy Concepts – Resources for Plant Energy Studies – Data Gathering – Analytical Techniques.
Energy Conservation: Technologies for Energy Conservation , Design for Conservation of Energy materials – energy flow networks – critical assessment of energy usage – formulation of objectives and constraints – synthesis of alternative options and technical analysis of options – process integration.

UNIT III:
Economic Analysis: Scope, Characterization of an Investment Project – Types of Deprecication – Time Value of money – budget considerations, Risk Analysis.

UNIT IV:
Methods of Evaluation of Projects : Payback – Annualised Costs – Investor’s Rate of return – Present worth – Internal Rate of Return – Pros and Cons of the common methods of analysis – replacement analysis.
Energy Consultant: Need of Energy Consultant – Consultant Selection Criteria.

UNIT V:
Alternative Energy Sources : Solar Energy – Types of devices for Solar Energy Collection – Thermal Storage System – Control Systems-
Wind Energy – Availability – Wind Devices – Wind Characteristics – Performance of Turbines and systems.

BOOKS :
1. Energy Management Hand book by W.C. Turner (Ed)
2. Management by H.Koontz and Cyrill O Donnell
3. Financial Management by S.C. Kuchhal
4. Energy Management by W.R.Murthy and G.Mc Kay
5. Energy Management Principles by CB Smith.

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (TE203)

UNIT -1:
Introduction to FEM: basic concepts, historical back ground, application of FEM, general description, comparison of fem with other methods, variational approach, Galerkin Methods
Co-ordinates, basic element shapes, interpolation function. Virtual energy principle, Rayleigh- Ritz method, properties of stiffness matrix, treatment of boundary conditions, solution of system of equations, shape functions and characteristics, Basic equations of elasticity, strain displacement relations

UNIT -2:
1-D structural problems – axial bar element – stiffness matrix, load vector, temperature effects, Quadratic shape function. Analysis of Trusses – Plane Truss and Space Truss elements. Analysis of beams – Hermite shape functions – stiffness matrix – Load vector – Problems – analysis.

UNIT -3:
2-D problems –CST, force terms, Stiffness matrix and load vector, boundary conditions, Isoparametric element – quadrilateral element, Shape functions – Numerical Integration
3-D problems – Tetrahedran element – Jacobian matrix – Stiffness matrix

UNIT -4:
Scalar field problems - 1-D Heat conduction – 1-D fin element – 2-D heat conduction problems – Torsion.

UNIT -5:
Dynamic considerations, Dynamic equations – consistent mass matrix – Eigen Values, Eigen Vector, natural frequencies – mode shapes – modal analysis.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Introduction to finite elements in engineering – Tirupathi K. Chandrupatla and Ashok D. Belagundu.
2. The finite element methods in Engineering – S.S. Rao _ Pergamon, New York
3. An Introduction to Finite Element Methods – J. N. Reddy – Mc Grawhill
4. The Finite element method in engineering science – O.C. Aienkowitz, Mc Grawhill.
5. Concepts and applications of finite element analysis – Robert Cook
6. Finite Element Procedures in Engineering analysis – K.J Bathe

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (TE204)
UNIT 1:  Introduction to Numerical Methods - Finite Difference, Finite Element and Finite Volume Methods    Classification of Partial Differential Equations – Solution of Linear Algebraic Equations – Direct and Iterative Approaches
Finite difference methods: Taylor’s series – FDE formulation for 1D and 2D steady state heat transfer problems – Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical co-ordinate systems – boundary conditions – Un steady state heat conduction – Errors associated with FDE - Explicit Method – Stability criteria – Implicit Method – Crank Nickolson method – 2-D FDE formulation – ADI – ADE
UNIT 2: Finite Volume Method: Formation of Basic rules for control volume approach using 1D steady heat conduction equation – Interface Thermal Conductivity - Extension of General Nodal Equation to 2D and 3D Steady heat conduction and Unsteady heat conduction

UNIT 3: FVM to Convection and Diffusion:  Concept of Elliptic, Parabolic and Hyperbolic Equations applied to fluid flow – Governing Equations of Flow and Heat transfer – Steady 1D Convection Diffusion – Discretization Schemes and their assessment – Treatment of Boundary Conditions

UNIT 4: Calculation of Flow Field: Vorticity & Stream Function Method - Staggered Grid as Remedy for representation of Flow Field - Pressure and Velocity Corrections – Pressure Velocity Coupling - SIMPLE & SIMPLER (revised algorithm) Algorithm.

UNIT 5: Turbulent Flows: Direct Numerical Simulation, Large Eddy Simulation and RANS Models

Compressible Flows: Introduction - Pressure, Velocity and Density Coupling.

TEXT BOOKS:

1.    Computational Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer – Muralidharan & Sundarajan (Narosa Pub)
2.    Numerical heat transfer and fluid flow – S.V. Patankar (Hemisphere Pub. House)
3.    An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics – FVM Method – H.K. Versteeg, W. Malalasekhara (PHI)
4.    Computational Fluid Dynamics – Anderson (TMH)
5.    Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics – Ferziger, Peric (Springer)

REFERENCE BOOKS:

1.    Computational Fluid Dynamics, T.J. Chung, Cambridge University
2.    Computaional Fluid Dynamics – A Practical Approach – Tu, Yeoh, Liu (Elsevier)
3.    Text Book of Fluid Dynamics, Frank Chorlton, CBS Publishers

COMPUTATIONAL METHODS LABORATARY

C programming for problem solving.

Solving Thermal Engineering problems using available packages such as T K Solver,

ANSYS, CFX, STARCD, MATLAB, FLUENT etc…

EQUIPMENT DESIGN FOR THERMAL SYSTEMS (TE205)
(ELECTIVE III)

Unit - 1: Classification of heat exchangers: Introduction, Recuperation & Regeneration – Tubular heat exchangers: double pipe, shell & tube heat exchanger, Plate heat exchangers, Gasketed plate heat exchanger, spiral plate heat exchanger, Lamella heat exchanger, extended surface heat exchanger, Plate fin, and Tubular fin.
Basic Design Methods of Heat Exchanger: Introduction, Basic equations in design, Overall heat transfer coefficient – LMTD method for heat exchanger analysis  – parallel flow, counter flow, multipass, cross flow heat exchanger design calculations.

Unit - 2: Double Pipe Heat Exchanger: Film Coefficient for fluids in annulus, fouling factors, calorific temperature, average fluid temperature, the calculation of double pipe exchanger, Double pipe exchangers in series-parallel arrangements.

Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers: Tube layouts for exchangers, baffle Heat exchangers, calculation of shell and tube heat exchangers – shell side film coefficients, Shell side equivalent diameter, the true temperature difference in a 1-2 heat exchanger, influence of approach temperature on correction factor, shell side pressure drop, tube side pressure drop, Analysis of performance of 1-2 heat exchanger, and design calculation of shell & tube heat exchangers. Flow arrangements for increased heat recovery, the calculations of 2-4 exchangers.

Unit - 3: Condensation of single vapors: Calculation of a horizontal condenser, vertical condenser, De-super heater condenser, vertical condenser – sub-cooler, horizontal condenser – subcooler, vertical reflux type condenser, condensation of steam.

Unit – 4: Vaporizers, Evaporators and Reboilers: Vaporizing processes, forced circulation vaporizing exchangers, natural circulation vaporizing exchangers, calculations of a reboiler.
Extended Surfaces: Longitudinal fins, weighted fin efficiency curve, calculation of a double pipe fin efficiency curve, calculation of a double pipe finned exchanger, calculation of a longitudinal fin shell and tube exchanger.

Unit - 5:  Direct Contact Heat Exchanger: Cooling towers, relation between wet bulb & dew point temperatures, the Lewis number, and classification of cooling towers, cooling tower internals and the roll of fill, Heat balance, heat transfer by simultaneous diffusion and convection. Analysis of cooling tower requirements, Design of cooling towers, Determination of the number of diffusion units, calculation of cooling tower performance.

TEXT BOOKS :
1.    Process Heat Transfer – D.Q. Kern, TMH.
1. Cooling Towers by J.D. Gurney
2. Heat Exchanger Design – A.P.Fraas and M.N. Ozisick. John Wiely & sons, New York.

CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER (TE206)
(ELECTIVE  III)

Unit-1:Introduction:  Forced, free & combined convection – convective heat transfer coefficient – Application of dimensional analysis to convection – Physical interpretation of dimensionless numbers.
Equations of Convective Heat Transfer: Continuity, Navier-Strokes equation & energy equation for steady state flows – similarity – Equations for turbulent convective heat transfer – Boundary layer equations for laminar, turbulent flows – Boundary layer integral equations.

Unit-2: External Laminar Forced Convection: Similarity solution for flow over an isothermal plate – integral equation solutions – Numerical solutions – Viscous dissipation effects on flow over a flat plate.
External Turbulent Flows: Analogy solutions for boundary layer flows – Integral equation solutions – Effects of dissipation on flow over a flat plate.
Internal Laminar Flows: Fully developed laminar flow in pipe, plane duct & ducts with other cross-sectional shapes – Pipe flow & plane duct flow with developing temperature field – Pipe flows & plane duct flow with developing velocity & temperature fields.
Internal Turbulent Flows: Analogy solutions for fully developed pipe flow –Thermally developing pipe & plane duct flow.

Unit – 3: Natural Convection: Boussineq approximation – Governing equations – Similarity – Boundary layer equations for free convective laminar flows – Numerical solution of boundary layer equations.
Free Convective flows through a vertical channel across a rectangular enclosure – Horizontal enclosure – Turbulent natural convection.

Unit – 4: Combined Convection: Governing parameters & equations – laminar boundary layer flow over an isothermal vertical plate – combined convection over a horizontal plate – correlations for mixed convection – effect of boundary forces on turbulent flows – internal flows - internal mixed convective flows – Fully developed mixed convective flow in a vertical plane channel & in a horizontal duct.

Unit - 5: Convective Heat Transfer Through Porous Media: Area weighted velocity – Darcy flow model – energy equation – boundary layer solutions for 2-D forced convection – Fully developed duct flow – Natural convection in porous media – filled enclosures – stability of horizontal porous layers.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Introduction to Convective Heat Transfer Analysis – Patrick H. Oosthuigen & David Naylor (MCH)
2. Convective Heat & Mass Transfer – Kays & Crawford (TMH)

THERMAL AND NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS (TE207)
(ELECTIVE III)

Unit - 1:
Introduction – Sources of Energy, types of Power Plants, Direct Energy Conversion System, Energy Sources in India, Recent developments in Power Generation. Combustion of Coal, Volumetric Analysis, Gravimetric Analysis, Flue gas Analysis.
Steam Power Plants: Introduction – General Layout of Steam Power Plant, Modern Coal-fired Steam Power Plants, Power Plant cycles, Fuel handling, Combustion Equipment, Ash handling, Dust Collectors.
Steam Generators: Types, Accessories, Feed water heaters, Performance of Boilers, Water Treatment, Cooling Towers, Steam Turbines, Compounding of Turbines, Steam Condensers, Jet & Surface Condensers.

Unit - 2:
Gas Turbine Power Plant: Cogeneration, Combined cycle Power Plants, Analysis, Waste-Heat Recovery, IGCC Power Plants, Fluidized Bed Combustion – Advantages & Disadvantages.

Unit -3:
Nuclear Power Plants: Nuclear Physics, Nuclear Reactors, Classification – Types of Reactors, Site Selection, Methods of enriching Uranium, Applications of Nuclear Power Plants.
Nuclear Power Plants Safety: By-Products of Nuclear Power Generation, Economics of Nuclear Power Plants, Nuclear Power Plants in India, Future of Nuclear Power.

Unit -4:
Economics of Power Generation: Factors affecting the economics, Load Factor, Utilization factor, Performance and Operating Characteristics of Power Plants. Economic Load Sharing, Depreciation, Energy Rates, Criteria for Optimum Loading, Specific Economic energy problems.

Unit - 5:
Power Plant Instrumentation: Classification, Pressure measuring instruments, Temperature measurement and Flow measurement. Analysis of Combustion gases, Pollution – Types, Methods to Control.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Power Plant Engineering / P.K. Nag / TMH.
2. Power Plant Engineering / R.K. Rajput / Lakshmi Publications.
3. Power Plant Engineering / P.C.Sharma / Kotaria Publications.
4. Power Plant Technology / Wakil.

THERMAL MEASUREMENTS AND PROCESS CONTROLS (TE208)
(ELECTIVE IV)

UNIT-1:
General concepts – fundamental elements of a measuring instrument. Static and dynamic characteristics – errors in instruments – Different methods of measurement and their analysis – Sensing elements and transducers.
Measurement of pressure – principles of pressure measurement, static and dynamic pressure, vacuum and high pressure measuring – Measurement of low pressure, Manometers, Calibration methods, Dynamic characteristics- design principles.

UNIT-2:
Measurement of Flow: Obstruction meters, variable area meters. Pressure probes, compressible fluid flow measurement, Thermal anemometers, calibration of flow measuring instruments. Introduction to design of flow measuring instruments.

UNIT-3:
Temperature Measurement: Different principles of Temperature Measurement, use of bimetallic thermometers – Mercury thermometers, Vapor Pressure thermometers,
Thermo positive elements, thermocouples in series & parallel, pyrometry, measurement of heat flux, calibration of temperature measuring instruments. Design of temperature measuring instruments.

UNIT-4:
Level Measurement: Direct & indirect methods, manometric methods, float level meters, electrical conductivity, Capacitive, Ultrasonic, and Nucleonic Methods.
Measurement of density – Hydrometer, continuous weight method, Gamma rays, Gas impulse wheel.
Velocity Measurement – Coefficient of viscosity, Ostesld method, free fall of piston under gravity, torque method.
Measurement of moisture content and humidity.
Measurement of thermal conductivity of solids, liquids and gases.

UNIT-5:
Process Control: Introduction and need for process control principles, transfer functions, block diagrams, signal flow graphs, open and closed loop control systems – Analysis of First & Second order systems with examples of mechanical and thermal systems.
Control System Evaluation – Stability, steady state regulations, transient regulations.

TEXT BOOKS:
Measurement System, Application & Design – E.O. Doeblin.

REFERENCE BOOKS:
1.    Mechanical and Industrial Measurements – R.K. Jain – Khanna Publishers.
1. Mechanical Measurements – Buck & Beckwith – Pearson.
2. Control Systems, Principles & Design, 2nd  Edition – M. Gopal – TMH.

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING (TE209)
(ELECTIVE IV)

REFRIGERATION :

Unit – 1:
Vapour Compression Refrigeration : Performance of Complete vapor compression system.  Components of Vapor Compression System: The condensing unit – Evaporators – Expansion valve – Refrigerants – Properties – ODP & GWP - Load balancing of vapor compression Unit.
Compound Compression
Flash inter-cooling – flash chamber – Multi-evaporator & Multistage systems.

Unit – 2:
Production of low temperature – Liquefaction system ;Cascade System – Applications.– Dry ice system.
Vapor absorption system – Simple and modified aqua – ammonia system – Representation on Enthalpy –Concentration diagram.
Lithium – Bromide system  Three fluid system – HCOP.

Unit – 3:
Air Refrigeration : Applications – Air Craft Refrigeration -Simple, Bootstrap, Regenerative and Reduced ambient systems – Problems based on different systems.
Steam Jet refrigeration system
Representation on T-s and h-s diagrams – limitations and applications.
Unconventional Refrigeration system – Thermo-electric – Vortex tube & Pulse tube – working principles.

Unit – 4:
Air –conditioning:  Psychrometric properties and processes – Construction of Psychrometric chart. Requirements of Comfort Air –conditioning – Thermodynamics of human body – Effective temperature and Comfort chart – Parameters influencing the Effective Temperature. Summer , Winter and year round air – conditioning systems.

Unit – 5:
Air –conditioning Systems:All Fresh air , Re-circulated air with and without bypass, with reheat systems – Calculation of Bypass Factor, ADP,RSHF, ESHF and GSHF for different systems. Components:Humidification and dehumidification equipment – Systems of Air cleaning – Grills and diffusers – Fans and blowers – Measurement and control of Temperature and Humidity.

TEXT BOOKS :
1.    Refrigeration & Air Conditioning – C.P. Arora(TMH)
1. Refrigeration & Air Conditioning – Arora & Domkundwar – Dhanpat Rai

REFERENCE BOOKS :
1)    Refrigeration and Air Conditioning :Manohar Prasad
2)    Refrigeration and Air Conditioning : Stoecker – Mc Graw Hill
3)    Principles of Refrigeration – Dossat (Pearson)
4)    Refrigeration and Air Conditioning : Ananthanarayana (TMH)
5)    Refrigeration and Air Conditioning : Jordan and – Prentice Hall, Preister
6)    Refrigeration and Air Conditioning : Dossat – Mc Graw Hill
7)    Thermal Environmental Engg.        : Threlkeld – Van Nostrand
8)    Refrigeration and Air Conditioning : Ballany – Khanna
9)    Refrigeration and Air Conditioning : Arora – Tata Mc Graw Hill
10) Refrigeration and Air Conditioning  : Domkundwar – Dhanpatrai
11) Refrigeration and Air Conditioning  : SC Jain S.Chand and Co.
12) Ashrae Hand Book                             : 2 Vols.

JET PROPULSION AND ROCKETRY (TE210)
(ELECTIVE IV)

Unit - 1:
Turbo Jet Propulsion System:
Gas turbine cycle analysis – layout of turbo jet engine. Turbo machinery- compressors and turbines, combustor, blade aerodynamics, engine off design performance analysis.
Flight Performance:
Forces acting on vehicle – Basic relations of motion – multi stage vehicles.

Unit - 2:
Principles of Jet Propulsion and Rocketry:
Fundamentals of jet propulsion, Rockets and air breathing jet engines – Classification – turbo jet , turbo fan, turbo prop, rocket (Solid and Liquid propellant rockets) and Ramjet engines.
Nozzle Theory and Characteristics Parameters:
Theory of one dimensional convergent – divergent nozzles – aerodynamic choking of nozzles and mass flow through a nozzle – nozzle exhaust velocity – thrust, thrust coefficient, Ac / At of a nozzle, Supersonic nozzle shape, non-adapted nozzles, summer field criteria, departure from simple analysis – characteristic parameters – 1) characteristic velocity, 2) specific impulse 3) total impulse 4) relationship between the characteristic parameters 5) nozzle efficiency, combustion efficiency and overall efficiency.

Unit - 3:
Aero Thermo Chemistry of The Combustion Products:
Review of properties of mixture of gases – Gibbs – Dalton laws – Equivalent ratio, enthalpy changes in reactions, heat of reaction and heat of formation – calculation of adiabatic flame temperature and specific impulse – frozen and equilibrium flows.
Solid Propulsion System:
Solid propellants – classification, homogeneous and heterogeneous propellants, double base propellant compositions and manufacturing methods. Composite propellant oxidizers and binders. Effect of binder on propellant properties. Burning rate and burning rate laws, factors influencing the burning rate, methods of determining burning rates.

Unit - 4:
Solid propellant rocket engine – internal ballistics, equilibrium motor operation and equilibrium pressure to various parameters. Transient and pseudo equilibrium operation, end burning and burning grains, grain design. Rocket motor hard ware design. Heat transfer considerations in solid rocket motor design. Ignition system, simple pyro devices.
Liquid Rocket Propulsion System:
Liquid propellants – classification, Mono and Bi propellants, Cryogenic and storage propellants, ignition delay of hypergolic propellants, physical and chemical characteristics of liquid propellant. Liquid propellant rocket engine – system layout, pump and pressure feed systems, feed system components. Design of combustion chamber, characteristic length, constructional features, and chamber wall stresses. Heat transfer and cooling aspects. Uncooled engines, injectors – various types, injection patterns, injector characteristics, and atomization and drop size distribution, propellant tank design.
Unit - 5: Ramjet and Integral Rocket Ramjet Propulsion System:
Fuel rich solid propellants, gross thrust, gross thrust coefficient, combustion efficiency of ramjet engine, air intakes and their classification – critical, super critical and sub-critical operation of air intakes, engine intake matching, classification and comparison of IIRR propulsion systems.

TEXT BOOKS:
1.    Mechanics and Dynamics of Propulsion – Hill and Peterson
2.    Rocket propulsion elements – Sutton

REFERENCES BOOKS:

1.    Gas Turbines – Ganesan (TMH)
2.    Gas Turbines & Propulsive Systems – Khajuria & Dubey (Dhanpatrai)
3.    Rocket propulsion – Bevere
4.    Jet propulsion – Nicholas Cumpsty