JNTU Environmental Studies syllabus

Environmental Studies
UNIT I
ECOSYSTEMS : Definition , Scope and Importance of ecosystem. Concept of ecosystem. Classification of ecosystem. Structure and Structural Components of an ecosystem. Functions of ecosystem. Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids. Flow of energy. Biogeochemical cycles. Homeostasis/ cybernetics, Food chain concentration, Biiomagification, ecosystems value, services and carrying capacity.
UNIT II
NATURAL RESOURCES: Classification of resources: living and non-living resources. Renewable and non-renewable resources. Water resources: use and over utilization of surface and ground water, floods and droughts, dams: benefits and problems. Mineral resources: use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources - case studies. Energy resources: growing energy needs, renewable and non-renewable Energy sources, use of alternate energy sources- case studies. Land resources: land as a resource , land degradation man induced landslides and land use/ land cover mapping.
UNIT III
BIODIVERSITY AND BIOTIC RESOURCE: introduction, definition, genetic, species and ecosystem diversity. Value of biodiversity: consumptive use, productive use, social , ethical, aesthetic and intrinsic values. Hot spots of biodiversity, Threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of wildlife. Man-wildlife conflicts, conservation of biodiversity: In-Situ and Ex-Situ conservation. Food and fodder resources, Timber and non-timber forest products.
UNIT IV
ENVINRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND CONTROL: classification of pollution and pollutants, causes , effects and control technologies. Air pollution primary and secondary pollutants , Automobile and Industrial pollution, Ambient air quality standards. Water pollution: Point and non-point sources of pollution, Major pollutant of water and their sources, drinking water quality standards, Waste water treatment methods: effluent treatment plants(ETP), Sewage treatment plants(STP), common and combined effluent treatment plants(CETP). Soil pollution: soil as sink for pollution, Impact of modern agriculture on soil, degradation of soil. Marine Pollution: misuse of international water for dumping of hazardous waste. Coastal pollution due to sewage and marine disposal of industrial effluents. Noise Pollution: Sources, Industrial Noise: Occup. ational Health hazards, standards, Methods of control of Noise. Thermal Pollution: Nuclear power plants, nuclear radiation, disasters and impacts, general disorders. Solid waste: types, Collection processing and disposal of industrial and municipal solid wastes. Composition and characteristics of e-Waste and its management.
UNIT V
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND GLOBAL EFFORTS: green house effect, green hose gases(GHG). Global warming, sea level rise, climate change and their impacts on human environment. Ozone depletion and ozone depleting substances(ODS). Deforestation, and desertification. International conventions/ Protocols: Earth summit, Kyoto protocol and Montreal Protocol.
UNIT VI
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA) AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN: definition of impact: classification of impacts, positive and negative reversible and irreversible, light, moderate and severe, methods of baseline data acquisition. Impacts on different components: such as human health resources, air, water, flora, fauna and society. Prediction of impacts and impact assessment methodologies. Environmental Impact Statement( EIS). Environmental Management Plan (EMP): Technological solutions, preventive methods, control technologies, treatment technologies: green-belt-development, rain water harvesting, Remote sensing and GIS methods.
UNIT- VII
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, LEGISLATION, RULES AND REGULATIONS: National Environmental Policy, Environmental Protection act, Legal aspects Air(Prevention and Control of pollution) Act1981. Water( Prevention and Control of Pollution ) Act 1974. Water pollution cess act 1977, forest conservation act, municipal solid waste management and handling rules, biomedical waste management and handling rules, hazardous waste management and handling rules.
UNIT - VIII
TOWARDSS SUSTAINABLE FUTURE: Concept of Sustainable Development, Threats to Sustainability, Population and its explosion. Crazy Consumerism, Over exploitation of resources, Strategies for Achieving Sustainable development. Environmental Education, Conservation of resources. Urban Sprawl, Sustainable Cities and Sustainable Communities. Human health, rule of IT in environment, environmental ethics, environmental economics, concept of green building. Clean development mechanism(CDM).
TEXT BOOKS :
Environmental studies: from crisis to cure by R.Rajagopalan, 2005.
Text book of Environmental Science and Technology by M. Anji Reddy 2007.
Environmental studies by Erach Bharucha 2005 , University Grants Commision, University Press.
REFERENCES :
Environmental Science: towards a sustainable future by Richard T.Wright 2008 PHI, New Delhi
Environmental Engineering and science by gilbert M. Masters and Wendell P ela 2008 PHI.